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There have been numerous attempts to produce brain changes without pharmacological interventions. Some were very invasive, such as Electroconvulsive Shock (ECT), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Vagus Stimulation (TMS). These brain stimulation methods have used electrical or magnetic impulses.  Behavioral Relationship Feedback tm  (BRF), conceptualized and developed by Dennis R. Maness, Ph.D., is unique among current brain stimulation / relaxation techniques because it is non-invasive and does not utilize electrical or magnetic impulses. IBRFead, BRF alters neuron activity and brain waves via sound, rather than electrical or magnetic stimulation both of which depolarize neurons creating electrical and biochemical changes. BRF operates under the premise that psychological conditions such as Depression, Insomnia, Stress Related Illness, and eventually all brain activities inherent to information procession have characteristic brain wave frequencies.

254 individuals between the age of 14 and 42 were exposed to the following clinical protocols: (a) Three times a week for three weeks, (b) Two times a week for two weeks, and (c) One time as week for three weeks. There were two programs, software displaying computer graphics only for the control group, and the software displaying monitor graphics AND an experimental group. The subjects were diagnosed with: Substance Abuse, Depression, Insomnia and Stress.

Although many questions regarding the neuro-physiological changes that take place are currently being investigated, strong clinical outcome continues to imply that significant relief for symptoms of Depression, Insomnia, Substance Abuse and Stress are noted by subjects in longitudinal studies. Symptoms of Depression continue to be in remission on one year follow-ups. Substance Abuse also continues to be in remission on one year follow-ups. The clinical uses of BRF will be discussed in regards to the advantages over psychoactive medication traditionally used for substance abusers, and for those who suffer with depression and other affective disorders, insomnia and stress related illnesses.


Review of Related Literature

There has been a quiet revolution occurring in the study of human cognitive functioning and its associated brain wave activity. Breakthroughs have been occurring whose application may rival the introduction of drug therapy to psychiatry. This new wave of therapy involves non-drug intervention capable of rapidly healing previously resistant mental health problems and improving cognitive performance in normal subjects.

These new interventions have risen out of ongoing research with Electroencephalogram (EEG) feedback. In the 1960's EEG feedback was used to control stress. However, the interest of serious researchers waned as EEG Biofeedback was embraced in the popular culture as a cure-all. Clinical interest in biofeedback returned with the publication of controlled studies showing the effectiveness of biofeedback in clinical tests with up to three years of follow-up (Ochs, 1993). As new generations of EEG equipment became available, researchers developed an ever expanding view of brain wave patterns. Associations were formed between specific patterns of brain wave activity and pathological, normal, and optimal cognitive performance.

Neuro Science is one of the "HOT" and evolving sciences getting its impetus from neuro-imaging technologies. Utilizing this information, Biofeedback researchers have been training subjects who have frequency patterns associated with various disorders to alter their brainwave patterns to match those with normally functioning individuals (Hutchinson, 1994). This technique has been found to be a rapid and effective intervention for many seizure and resistant pathology; including "Depression, Sleep Disorder, Seizure, Chronic Fatigue, Headaches, Mood Swings, Anxiety" (Hutchinson, 1994, Pp 361), Alcoholism, (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989), Addiction, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Epilepsy, Post Traumatic Stress, Paralysis, and Cognitive Impairment as well as a result of Stroke or Injury (Ochs, 1993). On the million Clinical Multi-axial Inventory (MCMI) brain-wave training (BWT) resulted in significant decreases on the "scales labeled Schizoid, Avoidant, Passive-aggressive, Schizotypal, borderline, paranoid, anxiety, depression, and psychotic delusion" when used with Vietnam veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1990, P.37).

Possible Mechanisms Underlying Brain Wave Training: The Triggering of Neurotransmitters.

Why should helping individuals retain their brain wave frequency patterns be so helpful? A suggestion might be found in the work of Patterson and Capel (1983) conducted in Surrey, England. They found that different neurotransmitters were triggered by different frequencies and wave forms. For example, a 10-hertz signal boots production and turnover rate of serotonin. "Each brain center generates impulses at a specific frequency, based on the predominant neurotransmitters it secretes," says Dr. Capel. "In other words, the brain's internal communications system has its language, if you like, is based on frequency . . ." (Ostrander & Schroeder, 1991, P.264).

Neuro Chemical State of Brain Trauma

The direct release of desirable neurotransmitters through an increase in amplitude of specific brain wave frequencies might not be the only mode of action for brain-wave training. A related theory of why helping subjects retain their EEG patterns could be helpful is postulated by Len Ochs, a California therapist and researcher.

Dr. Ochs speculates that neuro-chemical response to trauma may become entrained as a permanent state, limiting normal functioning, and the brain-wave training may allow a return of the pre-trauma neuro-chemical state. Dr. Ochs postulates that psychological or physical trauma induces such a high level of neuro-chemical excitement that a seizure may be imminent. In order to protect itself, the brain responds with inhibitory chemicals. One could visualize it as the neuro-chemical equivalent of curling up in a ball. In a protective stance, the inhibited brain has lost function, just as a person curled up in a ball cannot walk or function normally in their protective posture. Dr. Ochs postulates that these inhibitory chemicals may linger in the brain for an extended period of time (one supposes for lack of activation of proper janitorial reuptake enzymes) or, that the brain mechanism responsible for the production of seizure protecting neurotransmitters not reset itself to the pre trauma state, such a mechanism would explain why altering brain waves is helpful, and why it works with pathologies resistant to other interventions.

EEG Disentertainment Feedback

Dr. Ochs created an EEG biofeedback device which operates directly on the subjects EEG patterns through light and sound drivers. Normally in EEG biofeedback, a subject must attend to, and attempt to respond to a signal which provides information about their brain wave frequencies.

Unlike traditional EEG biofeedback, Dr. Ochs' device does not require the subject to be consciously in the loop or attempting to do anything. The overall brain waves respond to and match the frequency and amplitude of the signals delivered via strobe glasses and headphones. The audio and visual stimuli in turn are generated by overall amplitude and frequency of the EEG. A computer monitors both and allows the clinician to intervene and sweep the frequencies upward or downward. Dr. Ochs calls his form of biofeedback "EEG Disentertainment Feedback (E.D.F.)" (Ochs, 1993). The equipment is actually entertaining the brainwave frequencies, yet, he refers to the hypothesized intervention of disentertaining a projection mechanism gone awry, a locked state of emergency brain functioning.

Ochs has been having remarkable results with victims of both psychological trauma and physical brain trauma. He has successfully treated victims of closed head injury, stroke, post-traumatic stress, depression, and addiction. Many of these patients had conditions which were very resistant to treatment with other interventions. If Dr. Ochs hypothesis is true, then EDF and all other brain wave retraining devices either activate the proper inhibitory enzyme reuptake mechanism, or they disrupt the seizure inhibition responses which have taken over, as the day to day standard for neuro chemical functioning. In either case, brainwave training would be helping because it allows the brain to reset itself to its normal unimpaired state of functioning. The brainwave training would not be directly repairing what is impaired, but would be enabling the brain to heal itself (Ochs, 1993). The observations and speculations of Ochs, Patterson and Capel provide some insight into why such "physical therapy" for the brain may work. They illustrate why we might be as effective using brain wave training to improve some individual elements of functioning such as memory, as well as working on broad fields of impaired functioning such as depression, head injury, addiction ADHD and other conditions.

The Peniston Protocol

Perhaps the most famous research to date using EEG biofeedback training has been the work of Peniston and Kulkolky for their procedure, the Peniston Protocol. Peniston and Kulkosky used alpha-theta brain-wave training to increase the amount of amplitude of the subjects' alpha and theta brain waves. Dr. Eugine Peniston and Dr. Paul Kulkosky randomly assigned alcoholics to a control group which received conventional medical treatment (Minnesota Model (12 Step), and an experimental group for which the only interventions were fifteen, twenty minute sessions of Alpha-Theta brain wave training. They also included in the study a second control group of non-alcoholics. The results sent a shockwave through every segment of the alcohol treatment community aware of the study (Hutchinson, 1994). The control group received traditional medical treatment and demoBRFrated an 80 percent relapse rate during the thirteen month post treatment follow-up period. The experimental group received 15, twenty minute brain-wave training (BWT) sessions, and no other treatment, demoBRFrated only 20 percent relapse during the same follow-up period. The authors concluded that "Depression, as indexed by Beck Depressing Inventory, was significantly reduced in the experimental group as compared to controls (nonalcoholic) level after BWT" (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989, Pp 276). The alcoholic control group did not demoBRFrate any significant change in depression as measured by Beck's Depression Inventory*

* The BRF program has shown repeated success in depression when Behavioral Relationship Feedback tm (BRF) included visual stimulation.

Lack of Success with Standard Medical Treatment

The twenty percent success rate with traditional intervention techniques in the PiBRFon & Kulkolky study is not an unusual finding on the ineffectiveness of currently available alcohol treatment. At the Washington University Department of Psychiatry, John Helzer and colleagues concluded in their study that "Less than 10 percent of those treated specifically for alcoholism survived and were not drinking five to eight years after receiving treatment" (Peele, 1989. Pp 78). In a follow up study of the Minnesota Model at Cambridge involving 100 patients across eight years, researchers concluded "there is compelling evidence that the results of our treatment were no better than the natural history of the disease" (Peele, 1989, Pp 74). Peniston and Kulkosky also noted that "major outcome studies that have used specific therapeutic interventions such as controlled drinking, abstinence, compulsory AA attendance, and an active follow-up program yielded results after 2 and 8 years that were no better than those of the natural history of the disorder" (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989, Pp 271).

Comparing Brain-Wave Training to Standard Medical Treatment for Alcoholism

If alcoholism does involve impaired brain function, then the above statistics are not surprising. The subjects who received the traditional medical treatment are fighting agaiBRF their own physiology, whereas those who are receiving the alpha-theta brain-wave training are not.

Beta-endorphin has been linked to internal control mechanisms for eating and ethhanol consumption (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989). Based upon an ex existing literature, Peniston and Kulkosky observe, "If Beta-endorphin is elevated in alcoholics, a return to consumption of ethanol calories would be inevitable" (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989, Pp 276). Peniston and Kulkosky did find significantly elevated levels of beta-endorphin in the group who received traditional medical treatment. They did not find elevated levels of beta-endorphin in the group who received the brain-wave training. Just as a painter who with no arms must struggle to overcome the limitations of his physiology to pursue what he wants to do, so might an alcoholic struggle agaiBRF his physiology to pursue his own choices for his life.

Within the traditional model of treatment, a basic physiological impediment is not being addressed. According to the findings of Peniston & Kulkosky, that the basic physiological impediment addressed not with drug therapy, but with a non-invasive technology which allows abnormal brain chemistry to return to normal values. This is a technique which in essence allows the brain to heal itself. The implications of the Penniston Protocol are not just for the alcoholic, but also for any patient with impaired brain functioning. Under this model, anyone with impaired neurochemistry (such as elevated beta-endorphin) would receive the same benefit from normalizing brain chemistry achieved with brain-wave training.

EEG Beta Brain Wave Training

While the Peniston protocol focuses on Alpha and Theta brain-wave training, other researchers have been looking into the benefits of using brain-wave training for beta frequencies. Beta training is another brain-wave training technique which trains the subjects to increase the amplitude and frequency of their mid-range beta frequencies. Beta training is another brain-wave training for beta frequencies. Beta training brain-wave training technique which trains the subjects to increase the amplitude and frequency of their mid-range beta frequencies. Beta training has been found to be an effective tool for treating ADHD and Dyslexia (Hutchison, 1994, Pp 360) and would seem to be significant in the area of education.

In a controlled study, Dr. Siegried Othmer found that beta training produces an average IQ increase of 23 percent. In cases where the starting IQ value is lower than 100, the average increase was 33 percent. Othmer also found dramatic improvements in visual retention and auditory memory, and the subjects showed major gains in reading and arithmetic (Hutchison, 1994, Pp 360 - 361).

BrainTek’s Behavioral Relationship Entrainment uses a combination of Beta, Alpha and Theta and Delta training. In a one-year follow-up study, the subjects showed significant improvement in self-esteem and concentration and significant improvements in such areas as sleep, irritability, organization, hyperactivity, verbal expression, reduction in headaches. Amazingly, the improvements seem to be permanent (Maness, 2003). These results warrant further research such as identifying whether such therapy would would offer potential benefit subjects who suffer from Schizophrenia and Depression with Psychotic Features and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Cranial Electrical Stimulation

Crainial electrical stimulation (CES) is a technique which introduces frequencies of low level electrical currents applied to the cranium. The medical college at the University of Wisconsin conducted a study on a commercially available CES device, the BT5. The purpose of the study was to determine if the BT5 would reduce student anxiety during final exams. The unexpected results were increases to IQ by twenty to thirty points and a conclusion by the researchers that the "BT-5 (CES) stimulation appears to enhance neural efficiency . . ." (Ostrander & Schroder, 1991, Pp 265-266). As with the other forms of brain wave training, the research using CES indicated significant improvements in individuals with an impaired level of functioning. Like the Peniston Protocol, CES brain wave training was found to have profound beneficial effects on the impaired mental and social functioning of alcoholics and addicts. CES has enabled some addicts and alcoholics to go cold turkey without any withdrawal symptoms, apparently through the stimulation of the production of beneficial endorphins (Ostrander & Schroder, 1991). CES brain wave training has been found to be effective in the treatment of impaired short term memory in alcoholics. With severe alcoholism, it can take as long as eight years of total abstinence before short term memory returns to its unimpaired level of functioning. With CES brain wave training, it can take as little as five days (Ostrander & Schroeder, 1991). If neural efficiency is increased, if new neural pathways can be created, and if an impaired state of homeostatic functioning can be reset to a fully functional one, then all of these technologies and interventions represent a staggering opportunity to improve the opportunities and quality of life for broad populations of individuals through brain-wave training.

The result that Russell and Carter were obtained with a form of beta brain-wave training which does not involve EEG biofeedback, and is apparently of the same caliber as Othmer has obtained with beta brain-wave training involving EEG

biofeedback. The demoBRFrated effectiveness of both approaches validates that one does not need the EEG feedback loop for the brain-wave training. Despite the lowered cost of the light and sound devices verses the EEG equipment, the light and sound equipment is less expensive and could be impractical in some settings, especially in an education settings, whereas training and the need for a medical doctors clearance is cumbersome. The misuse of light and sound machines could induce seizures and therefore not practical in many settings.

There is another, more cost effective method of conduction brain-wave training, namely Behavioral Relationship Feedback tm  (BRF). In the Light and Sound machines, the brain waves are altered through the use of light and sound.

BrainTek’s Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm uses a combination of sounds, vibrations, visual stimulation, harmonics, and isolated intervention and direction of brain-wave frequencies which are not as intrusive or as risky as the flashing lights located just above the eyelids when Light and Sound therapy is applied.

Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) signals are the final technology we will discuss and the technology under investigation in this study.

Binaural-Beat Audio Signals

Binaural-beat signals utilize a powerful form of audio driving to talter brain-wave frequencies. In specific forms of intervention, frequencies could be presented to individuals for brain-wave training in essentially the same manor as Light and sound brain-wave training. Binaural-beats signals (BBS) were first observed by the German scientist, H.W. Dove, in 1839. In its simplest form, BBS consist of two pure tones of different pitch being presented to each ear. Before the advent of electronic oscillators, researchers used tuning forks to produce the tones. Heard in the open air (monaural beats), the sound will wax and wane due to wave interference. A subject can hear those monaural beats with just one ear if need be. Binaural beats occur when the tones are presented separately to each ear. The sound no longer waxes and wanes in the room, but is heard inside th subject's head as the tone synthesized by the brain which does not exist outside of the subject's head (Oster, 1973).

The brain synthesizes the two sounds into a single experienced tone which seems to originate from the center of the subjects head. The synthesizing of the two tones into one experienced tone produces a phenomena known as hemispheric synchronization, where the electrical activity of the two hemispheres of the brain unite into a single synchronous pattern with an overall frequency at the frequency difference between the two original tones. If the difference between the two tones matches a particular brain wave state, such as 4 - 8 Hz (Theta), then the overall brain activity will tend to match that frequency, and hence enter that brain wave state. This phenomenon is referred to as the Frequency-Following Response (FFR) and is a powerful form of brainwave entertainment (Edrington # Allen, 1985). The FFR can easily take a subject into Beta, Alpha, Theta or Delta brain wave states and help them maintain those states.

By using only audio stimulation for Brain Wave Training, the benefits of Brain Wave Training are improved. Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) utilizes this technology. In developing the Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE), Dr. Maness identified neuro pathway behavior for normal healthy persons in various states. By identifying abnormal behaviors in the neuro pathways, Dr. Maness incorporated a code of behavior to identify the relationship between the abnormal behaviors and certain behaviors.  He then developed a driver which tunes the brain-wave of a person suffering from Depression, Insomnia, Substance Abuse, Stress Related Illnesses, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Visual Processing, Verbal Processing and other brain-wave and chemical imbalance behaviors.

Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) was presented via headphones and a signal was ran at a low volume. The researcher maintained control of the volume to prevent any possible confounding of the results by varied volume, tonal, timbre or tempo levels.

What are Behavioral Relationship Signals ?

BRE signals are derived from a specific audio entertainment technique developed by Dr. Maness that alter the undesired homeostasis of a client / patient.  This alteration changes dominance or the behavior of the neuro pathway. The alteration of a subject’s brain wave frequency or brain dominance produces changes in the subjects performance level on some cognitive tasks (Maness, 1997.)

The alteration of a subjects’ dominant brain wave and / or brain dominance produces changes in the subjects performance level on some cognitive tasks (Maness, 1997)

Brain wave entrainment is the utilization of brain-wave altering equipment (usually bio-feedback equipment) to produce durable changes in a subjects brain waves (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989).

Brain wave training has been found to yield excellent results in the facilitation of human memory, attention span and relaxation (Hutchinson, 1994).

Furthermore, this research has been demo BRFrating brain-wave training as an effective intervention in impaired levels of functioning due to ADHD, learning disabilities (LD), physical brain trauma, and psychological trauma (Ochs, 1993).

As a specific technique of Behavioral Relationship Entrainmenttm (BRF) developer, Dr. Dennis R. Maness has identified particular rhythms, amplitudes, displays and signals that enhance brainwave activity leading to desired results for non drug, non electrical shock, using only the pattern software developed by Dr. Maness for relief of Depression, Insomnia, Stress Related Illnesses, Memory malfunctions, Drug and Substance Abuse. It is hoped that this study will be one of the first bricks in the laying of a solid research foundation for support of clinicians and organizations interested in applied research and application of Behavioral Relationship Feedback tm (BRE). Behavioral Relationship Feedback tm (BRF) is used to retrain the brainwave to perform in a desired pattern. Early pioneers of brainwave activities called such therapies 'brainwave training'.

Clinical trials using Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) which utilizes sound, rhythms, vibrations, harmonics, specific frequencies in specific patterns and specific timings properly spaced at proper frequencies and amplitude, for improving mood, attitude and normal overall psychological function. BRE signals are a specific audio entertainment technique for altering a subjects brain-waves.

The alteration of a subjects brain-wave frequency or amplitude produces changes in the subjects performance level on some cognitive tasks (Hutchinson, 1994).

Brain-wave training is the utilization of brain-wave altering equipment (usually biofeedback equipment) to produce durable changes in a subjects brain-waves (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989)

Brain-wave training has been found to yield excellent results in the facilitation of human memory, attention span and relaxation (Hutchinson, 1994).

Furthermore, this research has been demoBRFrating brain-wave training as an effective intervention in impaired levels of functioning due to ADHD, Learning Disabilities / Disorders (LD), Physical Brain Trauma and Psychological Trauma (Ochs, 1993).

As a specific technique of brain-wave training, in the development of Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) Dr. Dennis R. Maness identified particular rhythms, sounds, vibrations and signals that enhance brain-wave activity leading to desired results for Depression, Insomnia, Drug and Substance Abuse, Stress Related Illness and Memory Malfunctions.  Most recent developments in Behavioral Relationship Entrainment are in the resolution of Migraine Headaches.  Studies of BRE have shown it to be effective on resolving Migraine Headaches within twenty minutes without the use of drugs.  The treatment has lasted from one day up to six months before the Client / Patient had need of further treatment.

 Behavioral Relationship Entrainmenttm (BRE) has also been found effective mental productivity.  Law enforcement officers in North Carolina, USA have shown immediate improvement in visual range and show a marked improvement in hand – eye response and an improvement in recall in timed cognitive tests following treatment.

These findings are important because ones ability to achieve or be productive is severely limited if they are stressed, depressed, tired due to insomnia or lack of proper rest, if they are high due to substance abuse or experiencing withdrawals, low self esteem or other psychological issues. Other ailments that inhibit productivity include auditory and / or visual processing problems such as in attention-deficit disorders. BRE has been found effective in assisting and recovering these psychological issues. 


Subjects were 254 individuals between the ages of 14 and 42. The subjects were diagnosed with the following; Substance Abuse, Depression, Insomnia, Stress and Stress Related Illnesses. Subjects utilized a computer monitor and the BRE Protocols.

The BRE Unit was also created and developed by Dr. Dennis R. Maness as a delivery method for Behavioral Relationship Entrainmenttm program. This unit controls the BRE signals. This apparatus and therapy has been conceptualized as Behavioral Relationship Entrainment  by Dr. Maness. The signals bring balance and organization to the neuronal behavior.

Therapy Protocol
A standard session of BRE includes a discussion of how the signal will allow the subject to experience sensations that will stimulate neuronal activity utilizing their own naturally produced brain chemicals and neurotransmitters. The clinician will discuss with the client information contained in the BRE guide while helping the client become more relaxed prior to the therapy. Generally, and for most disorders, a standard therapy protocol will consist of administering the signals  three times a week for a minimum of weeks. However, this procedure can be modified for clients who are in crisis and in need of more pronounced intervention, beginning with daily therapy sessions for 4 to 5 days the first week.

The participants were 254 individuals aged 14 to 42 years of age, presenting the following clinical problems: Substance Abuse, Depression, Insomnia and Stress Related Illnesses. All participants were obtained through the Department of Corrections, homeless shelters, applicants to the program and referrals. All participants were in a lock-down environment although some of the participants had certain freedoms which allowed them to leave the lock-down environment and return at a specified time or date. The participants utilized a computer monitor and the BRE sound tracks. While subjects viewed the computer monitor, undisturbed, the BRE sound track played. Of the 254 participants taking part in the program, one dropped out. That one took part in three sessions over a two week period. Over a nine month period, there were no negative side effects.   Additionally, there were reduced events of bipolar, anger, depression and great improvement in self-esteem.

 For the present project, all participants were drug tested by an outside agency prior to the program, at the end of the program and on a regular basis during the following year. Because of the severe nature of their disorders, they all received BRE four times per week for three weeks. Each session of the BRE lasted one hour.   

Assessments were taken weekly.  For each of the ten tests, Dr. Maness divided groups into two divisions based on the double blind methodology to the control groups and the Study Groups. The Study Group received the complete Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) protocols while the Control Group received the Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) protocols without the BRE signals. The presence or absence of the Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) protocols was the Independent Variable.

Before the first BRE session, all participants were administered and failed four tests, visual, verbal and processing, memory and cognitive processing tests including the TOVA test. These exercises measure one’s ability to process information. these tests consist of nonverbal problem solving, visual processing tasks, errors of omission and commission, numerical reasoning among other cognitive skills which give a strong indication of how they process information.

It is assumed that under the influence of drugs or alcohol lowers reaction time, and has interfered with their ability to process information or carry out normal processing functions.

Enhanced ability to more rapidly process information and more rapidly learn new material was considered a critical predictor of staying clean. All participants, including the one who dropped out of the program showed signs of benefit from the program by testing clean and passing tests one through four of the program.

Substance Abuse, Depression, Self Esteem, Insomnia, Stress and Stress Related Illnesses were reduced significantly. All but three of the subjects tested for drugs for the duration of the nine month trial. Subjects’ depression and stress related reoccurrences were eliminated after the second week of participation in the program in all but six of the 254 participants.


Outcome measures included testing free of drugs, subjective reports of clinical symptoms and life skills improvement (the ability to obtain a job, keep the job or the ability to return to school successfully.

Informed Consent of Participants
It was explained to the subjects the purpose of the program was to determine the effectiveness of the BRE program on cognitive behavior and their symptomology, especially if there was a noticeable reduction in the symptoms of substance abuse disorder, depression and stress. This included, but not limited to; improved sleep, longer periods of sleep, relaxation, ability to better deal with stress, reduction in depressive feelings, improvement in memory, self esteem etc..


 Week One
Substance Abuse Clients (91%) experienced the 'WOW' affect after the first two sessions. By the third session, the clients achieved minimal (42%) to maximum (19%) set goals.  Some in the program during their sessions experienced similar highs as compared to drug induced highs.

 Stress Clients (81%) reported the feeling of weightlessness, or being so relaxed they feel as if they are floating.

 Insomnia Clients (23%) reported they cannot remember been so relaxed. One client reported they haven't felt so relaxed since the dentist had them under Sodium Pentothal. Many clients report they lost all track of time, as the fifteen minute therapy had them feeling refreshed and reacting to the tests as well as those who had no symptoms of insomnia.

 Depressive Clients usually show little emotion going into the therapy. High stress, fear, lack of self esteem and lack of confidence in themselves or their abilities are not uncommon in this group. Their expectations are limited. Reactions after the first week are shallow statements of improvement; however, test scores are up (68%), eye movement patterns began to return to normal the first week, while internal representation (IR) modalities are beginning to return to normal.

 Among all groups, (22%) enter a dream state and experience the feeling of weightlessness, floating sensation. Others will describe the scenery below as they fly over. Most describe the feeling of peace and explain how the experience has made them very relaxed.

 Week Two

Substance Abuse Clients (41%) were impressed and surprised by their ability to abstain from drugs or alcohol use.

 Stress Clients (88%) were experiencing less symptoms while continuing their therapies.

 Insomnia Clients (44%) began to experience a full night sleep and show improved scores on the four tests associated with the program.

 Depressive Clients (33% at week two) (97% at the end of week three) are experiencing fewer depressive thoughts and symptoms. Continue to be inquisitive and react verbally to a notable decrease in depressive feelings. The clients Internal Representation (IR) modalities continue to improve and in many cases have returned to their normal, pre-depressive state.

Week Three
By the end of the third week, most clients are experiencing the satisfaction of their progress. Generally mood is elevated, affect is eurhythmic, and the person feels motivated and energized. Behaviorally, the client smiles, uses positive expressions, upbeat tone of voice and the positive vocabulary.

Comments from Participants
The following two sections are a sampling of the most recent comments of subjects involved in the current sample. They are;

I expected some help from your therapy. I didn't expect I would loose my desire for the drugs. This is the longest time I haven't used. Thanks to you and the pack at your center. 0730rf03

I was referred to you to be treated for depression and suicidal behavior. Not only did the depression leave, I haven't used and it has been over a year . 0515sj02

I haven't done a line or seen an 8 ball since I started here. I am working again and it feels good that I got something going for me for good. 0815DC02

I felt like I was floating I could see the beach and people below me. I never feel so good and so good at the same. I flyed until I land. I tested good now for six months. Now, I learning a trade and gonna get a job and get back my woman and make my moma like me again. 0815ac02

I tested clean and haven't used since I was referred to your clinic. For once I made my mother cry for doing something good. 0927ck02

I didn't have a lot of confidence, I was a person who was quite weak. I always followed who ever had the best stuff. Since finding your program, not only have I stayed away from drugs, I haven't even wanted the stuff. Know what else? I have since learned that I can be someone special, I can be accepted. Now I got game now I got confidence. 0815dd02

I lost more than a bad addiction, I lost the depression, I lost the downer, I remember the first time I came to see you, you said I had the meanest look in my eyes. I was high, and you said my mouth was really engaged. I was gonna show you up with my style. I was out in minutes and when you brought me out of it, I remember I couldn't stand up cause my legs were like jelly. I just chilled there and haven't used since. I got elected Student Body President after that semester and now I look forward to college. Thanks to you and your program. 0815jk02

The doctors diagnosed me as having anxiety attacks. I did a lot of stuff and ditched a lot and was kicked out of school.  I ain't used in over a year. 0815ac02


Your program has taken me to new highs and has taught me I don't need the bad stuff to feel good about me. I was scared of your machine at first but now it scares me to think what I would be by now and where I would be by now had I not found you. Thanks ! 0815se02

I'm one of the old timers who has been drug free and depression free for over a year. I don't hear the voices talking inside my head anymore, I haven't had suicidal thoughts since then and I am no longer reclusive or repulsive. I have started driving again, I have taken a job and I am in nursing school. My husband is your biggest fan. 0501sl02

Your program has helped me so much. Since the second session, I have not had a suicidal tendency or a depressive thought and it has been over a year. I am not afraid of people any more, I am back in school, I answer the door, the telephone and have even enrolled in a trade school. I drive, I have taken a job and I could babble on and on. I feel totally new and I am grateful for Dr. Maness and him helping me to normal again. 05sj0203


Before, I didn't have a lot of confidence, I was a person who was quite weak. I have since learned that I can be someone special, I can be accepted. What that gave to me was a confidence. I became a peer counselor, a school board rep which was a dream . . . it came true. and have learned I can be as successful as I want. My future, I can do anything I want to. My life is up to me, and now, I know I can achieve. 05943139

Your program has helped me a lot. When I came in, I couldn't remember anything. Now, my memory is so much better and I understand things so much better than I used to. 0927dd02


The preliminary data strongly suggests that participants in the study that were suffering from Depression, Insomnia Substance Abuse and Stress all responded positively to the Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE).

The following benefits have been documented by participants;

1. The therapy allowed substance abusers to experience a high by balancing of the neural chemicals and brain dominance change. This allowed many of the subjects to experience a natural high. We then returned the subjects to a normal balance and the subject did not suffer the affects of a withdrawal period. Based on these results, it is possible that the BRE program will be the first non-psycho active drug treatment for substance abuse.

2. The therapy will often relax the subject to a high Delta / low Theta State, allowing those suffering with Insomnia to return to a good nights sleep with greatly reduced to no reoccurring symptoms.


3. The therapy will relax the subject to a low Alpha to Mid Theta State to help subjects with high stress levels to relax, deal with issues and assist in the removal of stress and stress related illnesses.

4. The therapy stimulates cognitive and chemical activity to aid in the return a subject to their pre-illness state.

5. Reduce or eliminate the depression and stress caused by insomnia. Although initial research and ultimate documentation of brain stimulation therapy programs as created by Dr. Maness had the primary effect of increasing visual and verbal processing and restoring memory, Dr. Maness' research has shown and the clinical trials have proven BRE to be advantageous for individuals with a primary diagnosis of Depression, Insomnia, Stress Related Illnesses, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Abuse. Although the data is preliminary, it is noteworthy to read the verbal statements of the participants concerning the outcome of BRE on their lives. It is also noted that BRE has no side effects and is relatively safe to use. While it is important to recognize that all subjects except for three in the subject pool have tested negative for drugs for the duration of one year. It should also be noted that subjects’ level of depression and stress were eliminated in all but six (97%) of the subject pool after the second week of participation in the program.

Current research priorities have been established for the following;

1. To determine which therapy protocol was most effective within a given psychiatric disorder. For example; what should the frequency of the therapy be for alcohol abuse? Therapy protocols are being developed for each psychiatric condition, to be followed up with randomized control studies.

2. Future research will incorporate neuro-imaging studies much like those used in studies of Trans Cranial Magnetic Stimulation, mechanisms of action need to be understood.

3. BRE is being examined in randomized controlled studies. For example; Current studies show Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were returned to pre-trauma levels of functioning with BRE. Further randomized clinical control studies are being undertaken to study this preliminary finding to develop such programs and to review results after six months, one year and beyond. Other forms of anxiety such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders need to be studied as well.

4. Traditionally, brain stimulation therapy began with the early Electrical Compulsive Shock (ECS) in the 1930's on Schizophrenia and Depression with Psychotic Features indicates there might be some use for BRE within this population of disorders. At present, there is no data to indicate Behavioral Relationship Entrainment tm (BRE) would offer relief for Shock Disorder Schizophrenia, however, it is critical to conduct randomized control studies regarding BRE in those with Schizophrenia. There is an expansive literature in neuro imaging of the schizophrenic brain and certainly the use of BRE could be coupled with this voluminous data to study the effects of BRE on the Neuro Imaging changes that take place with treatment. While this project is not currently scheduled, it is approved for future tests.

5. Due to the newness of Behavioral Relationship Entrainment, Systematic Pre and Pro pack longitudinal studies with post testing at one year are beginning to become available. This process is in place and will be independently reviewed as data comes available.

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